Media & Education

Photo: Leslie King.
Photo: Leslie King.


CBC: Quirks and Quarks March 12, 2019: Clam gardens have been cultivated by Indigenous people for millennia

Hakai Magazine: 

CBC: All Points West:

Découverte: Radio-Canada (33:12 minute mark):

BBC Four: Masters of the Pacific Coast:

The Vancouver Sun: Clam Gardens Reveal Ancient Secret. March 16, 2016

CBC: Quirks and Quarks: Aboriginal Gardens Make Happy Clams

CBC:NxNW: The Clam Garden Network, 1 Feb, 2015

SFU News, p. 7.

British Columbia Magazine: Tending the Seascape. British Columbia Magazine, Fall 2012, pg.12 by Jude Isabella

New Scientist: Prehistoric fisheries offer clues to sustainable catch. New Scientist, 15:53 23 March 2012 by Jude Isabella

Archaeology Magazine: The Edible Seascape. Archaeology Magazine, Volume 64 Number 5, September/October 2011 by Jude Isabella



9781554200238Williams, J. 2006. Clam Gardens: Aboriginal Mariculture on Canada’s West Coast. New Star Books Ltd., Vancouver, BC.


Augustine, S. and P. Dearden, 2014. Changing paradigms in marine and coastal conservation: A case study of clam gardens in the Southern Gulf Islands, Canada. The Canadian Geographer / Le Géographe Canadien, 58: 305–314. doi: 10.1111/cag.12084

Browne, M. and D. Mildon 2010. The proof is in the putting: Clam gardens and fish weirs as proof of Aboriginal title in British Columbia. Paper presented at the International Congress of Ethnobiology, Tofino, BC.

Deur, D., Adam Dick, K. Recalma-Clutesi, NJ Turner. 2015. Kwakwaka’waka “Clam Gardens”  Motive and Agency in Traditional Northwest Coast Mariculture.  Human Ecology 43(2):201-212.

Groesbeck, A.S., K. Rowell, D. Lepofsky, A.K. Salomon. 2014. Ancient clam gardens increased shellfish production: Adaptive strategies from the past can inform food security today. PlosOne 9(3).

Lepofsky, D., N.F. Smith, N. Cardinal, J. Harper, M. Morris, Gitla (Elroy White), R. Bouchard, D.I. D. Kennedy, A.K. Salomon, M.Puckett, K. Rowell and E. McLay 2015. Ancient shellfish mariculture on the Northwest Coast of North America. American Antiquity, 80(2): 236-259. (please email us if you would like a copy of this paper)

Neudorf CM, Smith N.F., Lepofsky D, Toniello G, Lian OB, 2017. Between a rock and a soft place: Using optical ages to date ancient clam gardens on the Pacific Northwest. PLoS ONE 12 (2): e0171775. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0171775

Smith N.F., Lepofsky D, Toniello G, Holmes K, Wilson L, Neudorf C, Roberts C. 2019.    3500 years of shellfish mariculture on the Northwest Coast of North America. PLoS ONE 14(2): e0211194.



SeaGardensWoods, D.J. and Woods, D. (producers). 2005. Ancient Sea Gardens. Mystery of the Pacific Northwest. Aquaculture Pictures Inc., Toronto, ON.



Northwest Coast Archaeology:

The Millennia Blog:

Tla’amin-SFU Heritage and Archaeology Project:

Hakai: Science on the Coastal Margin:


Caldwell, M., D. Lepofsky, G. Combes, M. Washington, J.R. Welch and J.R. Harper. 2012. A bird’s eye view of Northern Coast Salish intertidal resource management features. Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology 7:219-233.

Isabella J. 2014. Salmon: A Scientific Memoir. Rocky Mountain Books.

Lepofsky, D. and M. Caldwell.  2013. Indigenous marine resource management on the Northwest Coast of North America. Ecological Processes 2:1-12

Lepofsky, D. 2009. The past, present, and future of traditional resource and environmental management. Journal of Ethnobiology 29(2): 161-166.

Moss, Madonna L. 2013. Beyond subsistence: the social and symbolic meanings of shellfish in Northwest Coast Societies. In Shell Energy: Mollusc Shells as Coastal Resources, edited by G. N. Bailey, K. Hardy and A. Camara, pp. 7–20. Oxbow Books, Oxford.

Pinkerton, E. and J.J. Silver. 2011. Cadastralizing or coordinating the clam commons? Can competing community and government visions of wild and farmed fisheries be reconciled? Marine Policy 35:63-72.

Silver, J.J. 2014. From fishing to farming: Shellfish aquaculture expansion and the complexities of ocean space on Canada’s west coast. Applied Geography 54: 110-117

Silver, J.J. 2014. Shellfish and coastal change: Pacific oysters and Manila clams in BC waters. BC Studies 181.

Silver, J.J. 2013. Neoliberalizing coastal space and subjects: On shellfish aquaculture projections, interventions and outcomes in British Columbia, Canada. Journal of Rural Studies 32: 430-438

Turner, N.J. 2005. The Earth’s Blanket. Traditional Teachings for Sustainable Living. Douglas & McIntyre, Vancouver and University of Washington Press, Seattle.

Turner, N.J. 2014. Ancient Pathways, Ancestral Knowledge: Ethnobotany and Ecological Wisdom of Indigenous Peoples of Northwestern North America.  McGill-Queen’s University Press, Montreal.

Deur, D. E. and N. J. Turner (editors). 2005. Keeping It Living: Traditions of Plant Use and Civilization on the Northwest Coast of North America. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA.

White, E. 2011. Heiltsuk stone fish traps on the Central Coast of British Columbia. In: The Archaeology of North Pacific Fisheries, edited by M.L. Moss and A. Cannon, pp. 75-90. University of Alaska Press, Fairbanks, AK.


Are you interested in having one of our members speak to your group about clam gardens? To inquire about a presentation, please email us.

Questions or comments?  Contact us here.